Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. Also known as: Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002. The most commonly used abbreviation is SOX, but SOA or Sarbox also occur. This US law was passed in response to a number of major corporate accounting scandals. US law to protect shareholders and the public from fraudulent practices in an organization. This indicates which type of information should be retained and for what period.