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Radio frequency identification (RFID)

A digital method to uniquely identify items via radio waves. For example, a shopping cart equipped with an RFI scanner can read all products equipped with an RFI tag and immediately display the total price on a personal display, or the movements of individual loads can be registered at a detailed level in a logistics environment. The extensive introduction of …

Ralph Kimball

Data warehouse guru. Author of several books on data warehousing, including The Data Warehouse Toolkit, The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit and The Data Warehouse ETL Toolkit. Characteristic of the Kimball method is a dimensionally modeled data warehouse, using a so-called Bus architecture. External Link:

Real time data

Data that always exists in its current form and composition. If, for example, a transaction has to change the data, this will be done immediately. Often, especially in larger environments, there are delays, because things are processed ‘batch-wise’. However, the definition of real time is arbitrary and varies from organization to organization.

Real time datawarehouse

A data warehouse that uses real-time data. This may be that the data warehouse uses the actual production data or that changes are processed in real-time in the data warehouse.

Realtime BI

Real Time Business Intelligence is a concept that aims to eliminate as much as possible the time between capturing data and performing necessary actions that can be derived from the final information. The time in between is determined by: The time it takes to collect and store data (data latency), the time it takes to analyze data and transform it …


A row of data in a database table that collectively describes a unique state.


Bringing it back to the desired state or, after a disturbance, returning something to a working state.

Recovery point objective (RPO)

The intended situation in which a transaction, process or operation must be returned, for example after a disruption. This depends on the extent to which it is acceptable for the organization to lose data.

Recovery time objective (RTO)

The intended, maximum time it may take to return a transaction, process, operation, or system to its intended or working condition. For example after a disruption.


In normalizing data, one of the main objectives is to prevent the storage of redundant data (redundancy). In some cases it may be a goal to store data in several places at the same time. The primary purpose of this is to ensure that data is not lost. In addition, it offers the possibility to use the identical data in …

Redundancy control

Managing identical data stored in multiple places. Overgrowth must be prevented and the data must remain identical. Replication is often used for this.

Reference data

Business data that has a consistent meaning and can therefore be used for reference, validation and checks.

Referential integrity

Referential integrity in a relational database is the premise that the internal consistency between the different tables within that database is guaranteed. This means that a primary key always exists in a table if it is referenced in a key field in another table. The DBMS ensures consistency and ensures that a transaction that breaks the consistency is not made.

Regulatory compliance

Compliance with legal requirements and standards with regard to entrepreneurship, especially aimed at listed companies. In BI terms, it is especially important to meet the requirements set for financial reporting and accounting.

Relational data

Data stored in a relational database

Relational database

A database in which, in addition to the data, the interrelationships between data are also recorded. By using relations, this can be requested and selected in various ways in different combinations. Data in a relational database is normalized and linked to keys and foreign keys. Relational database management system (RDBMS). A software system that takes care of the management (saving, …

Relational online analytical processing (ROLAP)

ROLAP is Relational OLAP based on a relational database (star schema)

Report (RPT)

An overview that contains useful information for the recipient. The shape is tailored to the user. This could be on paper, via a web page or in a spreadsheet.


The process of preparing and presenting reports and analysis results


The location where (in theory) all metadata is stored

Repository environment

An environment in which all metadata of the entire organization is stored. This can consist of multiple physical locations.

Resource definition framework (RDF)

A common standard for describing metadata. An RDF item consists of a subject, predicate and an object that together describe a unique fact.

Response time

The time between submitting a process, program, or operation and receiving a response. This response does not necessarily mean that the operation has been executed (execution time).

Return on investment (ROI)

This is recouped as a result of an investment, for example in BI. Can be expressed in time (how long does it take to recoup my investment) or as a percentage (what percentage of profit do I make on my investment). In the BI world it is important to justify the investments for BI, but also because BI can be …

Roll up queries

Queries that merge data to a higher level

Rolling summary

A summary or aggregation of data that is constantly updated in response to changed circumstances and / or changed data.

Rolling forecast

A forecasting method that is constantly updated in response to advancing insight and / or changed circumstances. The adjustment is often the result of the results of BI.

Root Cause Analysis

This is a term used in DQ and means addressing the root cause of problems instead of fixing data issues.

Row dimension

Dimension displayed along the vertical axis of a report. Also referred to as ‘vertical dimension’.

Running total

A rolling total count over the past period, for example the past 2, 3, 6 or 12 months. Is therefore not equal to a total over a fixed period, for example per quarter or year!